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Dry Bean Determination of Dockage

  • this procedure is performed on uncleaned dry bean – No. 8, 9 or 11 slotted sieve cleaning equipment is used, depending on seed size

Procedure

  • dockage is determined on two or more representative 250 gram samples
  • the sample is sieved over the appropriate slotted hand sieve and hand-picked to remove all coarse foreign vegetable matter such as pods, stems, straw and thistle tops, but not mineral matter, ergot, sclerotia, weed seeds or other grains

Composition of Dockage

  • all material removed by sieving or hand-picking as defined above is included
  • in dockage in samples eligible for off-grades, dockage consists of the material described above – however, dockage is not applied against samples eligible for the following grades:
    • Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Fire Burnt
    • Bean, Sample Salvage

Reporting Dockage Percentages

  • dockage is reported to the nearest 0.5 per cent

Sample Grades

  • sample-grade bean is graded with reference to “Canada,” (for example Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Heated)

Grading Factors

  • Contrasting classes: bean of another class that is of a contrasting colour, size and/or shape to the predominant bean in a sample is considered to be a contrasting class – samples containing contrasting classes in excess of the tolerance for the lowest numerical grade are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Contrasting Classes
  • Other classes that blend: sound bean of other classes that is similar in colour, size and shape to the predominant bean in a sample is considered to be of a blending class – samples containing bean of other classes that blend in excess of the tolerance for the lowest numerical grade is graded Bean, Sample Canada (classes), Account Other Classes That Blend
  • Foreign material: including any material other than bean or split bean, such as stones, shale or similar material, ergot and sclerotia not removed in cleaning – bean containing foreign material in excess of the tolerance for the lowest numerical grade are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Admixture
  • Earth pellets (soft): including soft fertilizer pellets and any non-toxic material of similar consistency – earth pellets in the cleaned portion of unprocessed bean are hand-picked and assessed as dockage; in processed bean, earth pellets that do not crumble under light pressure are treated as stones
  • Stones (in bean): hard shale, hard earth pellets, hard fertilizer pellets and other non-toxic materials of similar consistency are considered stones – samples of beans whose content of stones is over 0.5 per cent by weight, and up to and including 2.5 per cent by weight, are graded Bean, Rejected (grade) (class), Account Stones; samples of bean whose content of stones exceeds 2.5 per cent by weight are graded Bean, Sample Salvage
  • Stones (in pea bean): hard shale, hard earth pellets, hard fertilizer pellets and other non-toxic materials of similar consistency are considered stones – samples of pea bean whose content of stones is over 0.2 per cent by weight, and up to and including 2.5 per cent by weight, are graded Pea Bean, Rejected (grade) (class), Account Stones; samples of pea bean whose content of stones exceeds 2.5 per cent by weight are graded Pea Bean, Sample Salvage
  • Damage: including whole, split, or broken bean that is sprouted, very immature, perforated, distinctly deteriorated or discoloured by weather or disease, or that is otherwise damaged in a way that seriously affects appearance or quality
  • Splits: including split bean, broken pieces of bean less than three-quarters of whole kernels, halves loosely held together by cracked seed coats, and bean with cracked cotyledons (such as may result from artificial drying) (splits do not include any bean otherwise damaged)
  • Magnesium spot: refers to a black spot penetrating the cotyledon, most commonly found in cranberry bean – affected bean is considered damaged
  • Heating in pea bean: indicated by a dull seed coat varying from cream to mahogany colour (the colour is more intense in the hilum area) (when viewed in cross-section, the cotyledons are considered damaged rather than heated)
  • Heating in red kidney bean: indicated by a dull seed coat, dark red to black colour – bean suspected as damaged by heat are split to determine the degree and severity of damage
  • Rotted bean: kernels or pieces of kernels that are visibly in advanced stages of decomposition and feel spongy under pressure are considered rotted – rotted kernels are considered in combination with heated kernels
  • Mold: characterized by the presence of dark blue exterior molds that develop in machine-damaged crevices and yellow to black interior molds developed in the concave centre area common to light and dark kidney bean – bean containing more than 1.0 per cent by weight of heated, rotted and/or moldy bean, or having a heated or musty odour are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Heated or Account Moldy Kernels; samples with a fire burnt odour are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Fire Burnt

Heated, rotted and moldy bean will be combined with other types of damage and included in the specification for total damage including splits, foreign material and contrasting classes.

  • Odour: samples with any type of unnatural or objectionable odour other than that of heated or fire burnt kernels are graded according to the basic quality of the sample, the type and degree of odour, and the presence of visible residue causing the odour; samples having a distinct odour not associated with the quality of the grain are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Odour; samples having a heated odour are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Heated; samples having a fire burnt odour are graded Bean, Sample Canada (class), Account Fire Burnt
  • Cracked seed coats: considered sound if the halves are firmly held together and the bean is otherwise undamaged
  • Adhered soil: unprocessed pea bean densely covered with adhered soil (often referred to as mud balls) that will ultimately be removed in processing are assessed as dockage; in processed samples, pea bean is considered damaged
  • Colour: determined on the basis of the cleaned sample, after the removal of splits and damaged bean:
    • good natural colour: slightly dull, slightly immature or very lightly earth-tagged
    • reasonably good colour: moderately immature, lightly earth-tagged or lightly stained
    • fairly good colour: moderately earth-tagged or stained
    • off-colour: cannot be considered of fairly good colour, but is not severely earth-tagged, immature or severely stained