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Dry Bean Adaptation

Temperature

  • dry bean requires a warm growing season but is not adversely affected by high temperatures as long as soil moisture is adequate
  • the crop can tolerate temperatures as high as 35˚ C — temperatures higher than this may cause flower drop, especially if high temperatures persist for an extended time
  • daytime temperatures between 20 and 32˚ C are ideal for dry bean production — temperatures below 10˚ C will limit plant growth and development — below 8˚ C at flowering will cause substantial flower abortion
  • grow dry bean crops in areas with a long growing season that is warm enough to allow for proper plant development — dry bean is very sensitive to frost or prolonged exposure to near-freezing temperatures and must reach physiological maturity before the first killing frost of the season (dry bean can be grown in areas of southern Alberta that receive 1900 corn heat units or more during the growing season)
  • cool, damp weather during August and early September will delay maturity of the plant — this kind of weather (especially in fringe areas) will delay maturity and make the crop susceptible to first frost, with even 1 degree of frost damaging the plant

Soil

  • dry bean is adapted to a wide range of soil types – soils with good tilth, reasonable fertility and good drainage will promote good germination and uniform plant emergence
  • the crop will perform well in medium-textured soil such as light loams, sandy loams or silt loams – in fact, these soil textures are preferred because they offer good water infiltration, good water-holding capacity, higher organic matter and good tilth, which prevents soil crusting
  • other soil textures in Brown and Dark Brown soil zones can also produce a good dry bean crop if properly fertilized and managed
  • dry bean is very sensitive to poor drainage conditions, so avoid using fields with extensive low-lying areas that have poor drainage – growth will be affected if the crop stands in water for 24 hours
  • low-lying areas with salinity readings of more than 2.0 millimhos/cm should be avoided – dry bean is sensitive to salinity, which will affect germination, emergence and plant growth resulting in reduced yields (plants affected by salinity become yellow or stunted, and leaf edges brown and die)
  • dry bean can tolerate a wide range of soil pH, from 6.0 to 8.3 (as pH approaches outer extremes of this range, nutrient deficiencies may occur)
  • dryland production is not recommended for southern Alberta, as yields will be highly variable – the crop depends on sufficient rainfall, and dry bean yields for crops grown under dryland conditions will be substantially lower than crops grown under irrigation